During World War II, Fort Sam Houston once again became packed with soldiers. Another 500 temporary building went up--400 in the first year alone--during the war to house the Soldiers who transitioned through the post. A recruit reception center at Dodd Field, the airfield on the northern tip of the post, processed up to 1,000 recruits a day. From 1943 to 1946, Dodd also contained a prisoner of war camp for 1,600 Axis prisoners.
Brooke General Hospital also continued to expand. During the war, many of the temporary buildings that went up saw use as wards, administration buildings, or staff housing. Four barracks built in the 1930s were converted to hospital Annexes I, II, III, and V, while a new building, completed in 1942, became Annex IV, a psychiatric ward. This pushed the capacity to 7,800 beds and the entire complex became Brooke Hospital Center in 1945.
At the end of the war, Fort Sam Houston again became a demobilization point, and 500,000 Soldiers were processed back to the civilian world. The growth of San Antonio, as well as improvements in weapons range and infantry division needs meant Fort Sam Houston could no longer support a combat mission. The 1946 transfer of the Army's Medical Field Service School to the post marked the beginning of Fort Sam Houston role as the home of Army medicine. At the same time, Brooke Hospital Center and several other medical activities on the post were all organized as Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC).
During the Korean War, Fort Sam Houston again became a reception center for draftees and new recruits. The Medical Training Center also activated to train enlisted medical personnel. In the meantime, BAMC provided treatment for Soldiers wounded in Korea. In the years after the war, The Medical Training Center continued to train medics for the Army. In 1967 the Medical Training Center reached its peak of 29,000 graduates. In 1972 a reorganization of the Medical Field Service School resulted in its redesignation as the Academy of Health Sciences. The reorganization consolidated the Army's medical training, making the Academy one of the largest medical training institutions in the world. In 1991, it was redesignated as the Army Medical Department Center and School (AMEDDC&S), with the Academy of Health Sciences becoming the school arm of the AMEDDC&S.
BAMC also continued its growth, adding new clinics in 60s, 70s, and 80s. Despite its growth and reputation for healthcare, it remained scattered over Fort Sam Houston. In 1987, officials broke ground on a new hospital facility. The state of the art medical center was dedicated in 1996. The 2005 BRAC not only made Fort Sam Houston a part of Joint Base San Antonio, but it also consolidated medical training for all branches of the military on the old post.